1.7. Diagnostics of malfunctions of knots and systems of the car

The owners of cars performing procedures of routine maintenance of the vehicle it agrees provided in the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the present manual of the schedule will be extremely seldom forced to address materials of this Section. Reliability of the knots and components installed on modern cars is so high that at timely performance of replacement of the materials of details which are worn out and failed as a result of aging the probability of their sudden refusal is extremely small. Refusals seldom happen spontaneously and usually are a consequence time of long development of defect. In particular, failure of mechanical components practically is always preceded by emergence and evolution of the characteristic symptoms which are shown sometimes for many thousands of kilometers of a run to the full. The same components which can fail unexpectedly usually are not vital for functioning of the main knots and systems of the car, or are easily replaced in road conditions.

Fundamental step at identification of the reasons of any refusal is the choice of a point of the beginning of searches. Often the reason is lying on a surface, however in certain cases it is necessary to work, making small investigation. The motorist who produced half-dozens of casual checks of replacements and corrections quite has chance to find a cause of failure (or its symptom), however it is impossible to call such approach reasonable, in view of its labor input and aimlessness of expenses of time and means in any way. Quiet logical approach to search of the failed knot or component appears much more effective. Surely it is necessary to take into account everything preceding breakage, sometimes insignificant, symptoms and the guarding signals, such as loss of the power developed by the engine, change of indications of measuring instruments, emergence of unusual sounds and smells, etc. Do not forget that failure of such components as safety locks or spark plugs can be only a symptom more deeply of the hidden violation.

In this subsection rather simple scheme of diagnostics of the most often found refusals is given below. The reasons of violations and their symptoms are grouped in a sign of the relation to functioning of any concrete unit or system: "Engine", "Cooling system", etc.

Regardless of the refusal nature investigations of its reason are always taken the identical basic principles as a principle:

Make sure of correctness of definition of symptoms of refusal. Told means confidence in delimitation of the area of searches that it is especially important with the help in refusal diagnostics to other motorist who cannot adequately state symptoms of the violation taking place.

Try not to miss obvious violations. For example, if the engine is not started, do not hesitate to check availability of fuel in a gasoline tank (at the same time it is not necessary to take on trust statements of the owner of the faulty car). In case of refusal electric equipments first of all it is necessary to check a state and reliability of fastening of terminal connections of an electrical wiring, only after it it makes sense to get diagnostic units.

Try to remove a cause of failure, but not its symptom. Replacement of the discharged battery new will help to make start of the engine, however the reason of a discharge of the old battery taking place will remain not eliminated that will lead to bystry failure and new. Also replacement of the spark plugs thrown by oil will allow to restore serviceability of functioning of the engine for some time, however the refusal by all means will soon repeat (if the reason lay not just in application of candles not of that type).

Do not take on trust any statements. Remember that the "new" component can also be faulty, in particular if it long time lay in a luggage carrier - it is not necessary to exclude a component from the list checked only for the reason that it is new or is recently established. In case of neglect it is not necessary to be surprised with implementation of this recommendation when the cause of failure established, at last, is lying on a surface from the very beginning.

Diagnostics of the problems connected with start of the engine

Petrol engines

The engine is turned, but not started

1. The fuel tank is empty. Check, in case of need make gas station.
2. The battery is discharged (the engine is turned too slowly). Check, in case of need make recharge, or replace the battery.
3. Polar plugs of the battery are oxidized, or fastening of tips of wires on them weakened. Smooth out contact surfaces, replace the worn-out or damaged components.
4. Fuel does not move to injection injectors. Check a condition of a gasoline pump, the corresponding electrical wiring, a safety lock and the relay.
5. Excessive wear or mechanical damage of internal knots the saga takes place. Perform measurement of compression pressure in cylinders, estimate a condition of components of the GRM drive, guides of plugs and cores of valves, check installation of valvate gaps.
6. Water got to fuel. In cold weather crystallization of the moisture which is contained in fuel can lead to blocking of fuel lines. Use of special additives, however can facilitate start of the engine then the system is recommended to be emptied and washed out fresh fuel.
7. Violation of serviceability of functioning of system of ignition takes place. Check a condition of the corresponding electrical wiring and reliability of its contact connections. Estimate degree of wear of spark plugs and correctness of installation of interelectrode gaps. If the situation is aggravated at increase in humidity, check whether there is no short circuit between candles and coils of ignition.
8. Serviceability of functioning of a control system of the engine is broken. Check a condition of the corresponding sensors and the module of management of system.

The engine is not turned in attempt of its start


1. If at an engine provorachivaniye a starter brightness of a luminescence of lamps of illumination of the dashboard strongly decreases, estimate a condition and level of a charge of the battery, check serviceability of functioning of the generator. Estimate quality of contact connections of the corresponding electrical wiring. Measure the output tension of the generator. Make the corresponding corrections, replace left from costing components.
2. The RKPP/sensor switch of permission of start (AT) is faulty the sensor switch of disconnection of a chain of a starter. Make sure of completeness of squeezing of a pedal of coupling (RKPP), - on some models the sensor switch of disconnection of a chain of a starter is subject to adjustment. Track unambiguity of installation of the lever of the selector in situation "P" or "N" (AT). Estimate a condition of an electrical wiring of a chain of the corresponding sensor switch and its contact sockets. Make necessary corrections, replace the failed components.
3. Serviceability of functioning of a starter is broken. Check a condition of the electromagnetic actuator and relay of inclusion of a starter. Estimate quality of contact connections of the corresponding electrical wiring. Check serviceability of grounding of the unit for the mass of the chassis. If tension of the battery takes place on the relay, try to carry out trial start by means of a remote starter. Make necessary corrections, replace the failed components.
4. The engine is jammed. If the car long time was not used, the probability of "prikipaniye" of piston rings to mirrors of cylinders as a result of development of superficial corrosion is rather high. Can be one more possible reason of blocking of the engine formations of hydraulic traffic jams as a result of a moisture podsasyvaniye. Turn out spark plugs and try to turn the engine a key for a bolt of a pulley of a bent shaft, reasonably commensurating the enclosed effort. If jamming takes place, try to reveal and remove its cause.

The engine is started, but at once becomes deaf


1. The ignition switch is faulty. Estimate a condition of contact elements in position of RUN of a key. Repeat start attempt, previously having disconnected everything onboard consumers of the electric power. Sometimes, in case of wear of a key it appears to turn enough several times it there and back, - at the first opportunity replace a key.
2. The electrical wiring of a chain of system of ignition is torn off or is otherwise damaged, or fastening of plugs of its contact connections weakened. Execute the corresponding check, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
3. Losses of depression in the inlet pipeline take place. Estimate a condition of the corresponding vacuum hoses, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
4. The aberration of the pressure head and account characteristic of the fuel pump takes place. Excessive falling of the pressure developed in a power supply system usually is followed by noticeable decrease in acceleration performance of the car at acceleration. Check passability of lines of a fuel path. The fuel pump is not subject to adjustment and in case of refusal has to be replaced.
5. Serviceability of functioning of systems of injection/engine management is broken. Estimate a condition of an electrical wiring and contact connections of the corresponding information sensors and the module of management.
6 Passability of a path of system of production of the fulfilled gases is broken. Check, rectify debugged.

Input of a starter in gearing is complicated, or is followed by extraneous noises

1. Teeth of a driving gear wheel of a starter are broken off, worn-out or jammed. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. The gear wreath of a flywheel is worn-out or damaged. Uncover an observation port and visually examine a flywheel.

At an engine provorachivaniye the starter publishes extraneous noises

1. The driving gear wheel of a starter, or a gear wreath of a flywheel is damaged. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. Starter fixture weakened, or mechanical damage of the case takes place. Check, tighten fixture, replace a faulty starter.

Start of the cold engine is complicated


1. The battery is discharged, or the aberration of the volt-ampere characteristic of an electric motor of a starter takes place. Make recharge of the battery, or replace a starter.
2. Polar plugs of the battery are oxidized, or fastening of tips of wires on them weakened. Check, make necessary corrections, smooth out plugs, replace defective components.
3. Serviceability of functioning of a power supply system is broken. Estimate the pressure developed by the fuel pump, check passability of injectors of injection. Make replacement of the failed components.
4. Primary settings of the engine are broken. Make the corresponding checks, estimate a condition of spark plugs and correctness of installation of interelectrode gaps. On models with manual adjustment of valvate gaps make the corresponding check, in case of need execute necessary adjustments.
5. The sensor of temperature of cooling liquid is faulty. Make the corresponding check, in case of need replace the failed sensor.
6. Serviceability of functioning of systems of injection/engine management is broken. Estimate a condition of an electrical wiring and contact connections of the corresponding information sensors and the module of management. Make the corresponding corrections, or replace defective components.

Start of the hot engine is complicated

1. The filtering air cleaner element is polluted, or its passability is otherwise broken. Replace the filter, check passability of an airintaking path.
2. Serviceability of grounding of the engine is broken. Estimate quality of the corresponding contact connections, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
3. The engine needs servicing. Check correctness of installation of parameters of primary settings. Estimate serviceability of functioning of lubrication systems, food and engine management.

Diesel engines

The engine is turned, but not started

1. The fuel tank is empty. Check, in case of need make gas station.
2. The car is filled with low-grade diesel fuel. Check, in case of need empty the fuel tank and wash out it and fuel qualitative.
3. Compression pressure fell in cylinders. Make the corresponding check, in case of need it is necessary to make recovery repair of the unit.
4. Correctness of installation of phases of gas distribution of TNVD is broken. Check correctness of adjustment of the pump, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.
5. TNVD is faulty. Check a condition of the pump, in case of need make its replacement. Track for correctness of adjustment of the new pump.
6. Serviceability of functioning of nozzles is broken. Check, replace defective components.

The engine is not turned in attempt of its start


1. If at an engine provorachivaniye a starter brightness of a luminescence of lamps of illumination of the dashboard strongly decreases, estimate a condition and level of a charge of the battery, check serviceability of functioning of the generator. Estimate quality of contact connections of the corresponding electrical wiring. Measure the output tension of the generator. Make the corresponding corrections, replace left from costing components.
2. The RKPP/sensor switch of permission of start (AT) is faulty the sensor switch of disconnection of a chain of a starter. Make sure of completeness of squeezing of a pedal of coupling (RKPP), - on some models the sensor switch of disconnection of a chain of a starter is subject to adjustment. Track unambiguity of installation of the lever of the selector in situation "P" or "N" (AT). Estimate a condition of an electrical wiring of a chain of the corresponding sensor switch and its contact sockets. Make necessary corrections, replace the failed components.
3. Serviceability of functioning of a starter is broken. Check a condition of the electromagnetic actuator and relay of inclusion of a starter. Estimate quality of contact connections of the corresponding electrical wiring. Check serviceability of grounding of the unit for the mass of the chassis. If tension of the battery takes place on the relay, try to carry out trial start by means of a remote starter. Make necessary corrections, replace the failed components.
4. The engine is jammed. If the car long time was not used, the probability of "prikipaniye" of piston rings to mirrors of cylinders as a result of development of superficial corrosion is rather high. Can be one more possible reason of blocking of the engine formations of hydraulic traffic jams as a result of a moisture podsasyvaniye. Remove nozzles and try to turn the engine a key for a bolt of a pulley of a bent shaft, reasonably commensurating the enclosed effort. If jamming takes place, try to reveal and remove its cause.

The engine is started, but at once becomes deaf


1. Passability of the line of return of fuel, or its control valve is broken. Make the corresponding checks, remove the causes of blocking of the line, in case of need replace defective components.
2. There is too early shutdown of candles of an incandescence. Check, execute necessary corrections.
3. Adjustment of TNVD is broken. Check installation of phases of gas distribution, make necessary adjustment.
4. The car is filled with low-grade diesel fuel. Check, in case of need empty the fuel tank and wash out it and fuel qualitative.
5. Compression pressure fell in cylinders. Make the corresponding check, in case of need it is necessary to make recovery repair of the unit.
6. At a fuel path there are air traffic jams. Check fuel level in the fuel tank, in case of need make gas station.
7. TNVD is faulty. Check a condition of the pump, in case of need make its replacement. Track for correctness of adjustment of the new pump.

Input of a starter in gearing is complicated, or is followed by extraneous noises


1. Teeth of a driving gear wheel of a starter are broken off, worn-out or jammed. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. The gear wreath of a flywheel is worn-out or damaged. Uncover an observation port and visually examine a flywheel.

At an engine provorachivaniye the starter publishes extraneous noises


1. The driving gear wheel of a starter, or a gear wreath of a flywheel is damaged. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. Starter fixture weakened, or mechanical damage of the case takes place. Check, tighten fixture, replace a faulty starter.

Diagnostics of the problems arising in the course of functioning of the engine

Petrol engines

Stability of turns of idling is broken

1. Serviceability of functioning of system of ignition is broken. Check a condition of components of system and correctness of adjustments. Execute necessary adjustments, replace defective components.
2. Passability of injectors of injection is broken. Check, replace defective components.
3. Productivity of the fuel pump fell. Check passability of lines of a fuel path, in case of need replace the pump.
4. Serviceability of functioning of a control system of the engine is broken. Check, make necessary corrections.

The power developed by the engine fell


1. Primary settings of the engine are broken. Make the corresponding checks, estimate a condition of spark plugs and correctness of installation of interelectrode gaps. On models with manual adjustment of valvate gaps make the corresponding check, in case of need execute necessary adjustments.
2. The filtering air cleaner element is polluted, or its passability is otherwise broken. Replace the filter, check passability of an airintaking path.
3. Serviceability of functioning of systems of injection/engine management is broken. Estimate a condition of an electrical wiring and contact connections of the corresponding information sensors and the module of management. Make the corresponding corrections, or replace defective components.
4. The pressure developed by the fuel pump fell. Check pressure in a path of a power supply system, make necessary recovery repair, replace defective components.
5. Correctness of adjustment of components of the drive of a butterfly valve is broken. Check completeness of opening of a throttle, estimate degree of wear of plugs of rotary knots of the drive. Replace defective components.
6. Passability of a path of system of production of the fulfilled gases is broken. Examine system components on existence of deformations and other mechanical defects. Compare temperature on an entrance and at the exit of the catalytic converter and muffler, - if temperature of the entering stream much more surpasses temperature of the corresponding component leaving, therefore, passability is broken.
7. It is faulty, or the detonation sensor is too poorly tightened. Violation of effort of tightening of the sensor can lead to delay of ignition and, as a result, decrease in the power developed by the engine. Estimate a sensor condition, check effort of its tightening, in case of need make replacement.
8. Internal mechanical defect of the engine (decrease in compression pressure, wear of piston rings, valves, camshafts and the GRM components) takes place. It is necessary to make recovery repair of the power unit.
9. Level of motive oil is excessively high. Check, make the corresponding adjustment. In case of need replace oil and an oil filter.
10. Losses of depression in the inlet pipeline or connecting vacuum lines take place. Estimate a condition of components, replace defective laying / hoses.
11. Coupling revolves. Check a condition of components of assembly of coupling.
12. Brakes "are taken". Check, make necessary corrections. Replace defective components.
13. Are excessively worn-out, or tires are pumped incorrectly up. Check, in case of need make the corresponding adjustments. In case of need replace tires, make sure that their wear is not connected with violation of angles of installation of wheels/geometry of a suspension bracket or body, - violations of this sort can be the reason of increase in coefficient of friction and, as a result, decrease in efficiency of return of the engine.
14. For gas station of the car low-octane gasoline was used. Fill in qualitative fuel in the fuel tank.

Fuel consumption is excessive


1. The filtering element of the air cleaner is polluted or its passability is otherwise broken. Replace the air filter.
2. Primary settings of engines/systems of ignition and food are broken. Estimate a condition of components of system of ignition, replace worn-out elements. Check correctness of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and adjustment of quality of air-fuel mix.
3. Wheels not of that size are established, tires are pumped incorrectly up, or their protector is excessively worn-out. Installation of wheels of the increased size leads to increase in resistance to their provorachivaniye. For maintenance of normal speed of too small size of the car equipped with wheels higher turns of the engine are required. Excessive wear of protectors can be connected with the wrong rating of tires, violation of angles of installation of wheels or geometry of a suspension bracket. All listed phenomena lead to increase in fuel consumption due to increase in load of the engine under the same service conditions of the vehicle.
4. Brakes "are taken". Check, make necessary corrections. Replace defective components.

The engine continues to work after switching off of ignition (diesel effect)


1. Excessively high turns of idling are exposed. Check, make the corresponding adjustment.
2. Serviceability of functioning of the valve of stabilization of turns of idling is broken. Check, replace the defective valve.
3. Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken. Check a condition of the corresponding information sensors and other components of system of ignition. Replace defective units.
4. Losses of depression in the inlet pipeline or connecting vacuum lines take place. Estimate a condition of components, replace defective laying / hoses.
5. The excessive nagaroobrazovaniye in combustion chambers takes place. Use special additives to fuel, or make dismantling and decarbonization of a head of cylinders.
6. Serviceability of functioning of system of food/engine management is broken. Check a condition of the corresponding information sensors and modules of management. Replace defective components.

During acceleration or at increase in load of the engine there are knocks caused by too early ignition or a detonation

1. For gas station of the car low-octane gasoline was used. Fill in qualitative fuel in the fuel tank.
2. Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken. Check a condition of the corresponding information sensors and other components of system of ignition/engine management. Replace defective units.
3. The excessive nagaroobrazovaniye in combustion chambers takes place. Use special additives to fuel, or make dismantling and decarbonization of a head of cylinders.
4. Non-standard spark plugs are established. Replace candles, track correctness of installation of interelectrode gaps.

At operation of the car in the high-speed mode it is better to establish "colder" candles.


5. Serviceability of functioning of system of food/engine management is broken. Check a condition of the corresponding information sensors and modules of management. Replace defective components.
6. Passability of a path of system of production of the fulfilled gases is broken. Examine system components on existence of deformations and other mechanical defects. Compare temperature on an entrance and at the exit of the catalytic converter and muffler, - if temperature of the entering stream much more surpasses temperature of the corresponding component leaving, therefore, passability is broken.
7. It is faulty, or the detonation sensor is too poorly tightened. Violation of effort of tightening of the sensor can lead to delay of ignition and, as a result, decrease in the power developed by the engine. Estimate a sensor condition, check effort of its tightening, in case of need make replacement.

Increase in turns of the engine is not followed by increase in speed of the movement of the car

1. "Revolves" couplings (RKPP). See below the subsection devoted to diagnostics of malfunctions of coupling.
2. Transmission (AT) "revolves". Check the level and a condition of ATF in the transmission. In case of need make the corresponding adjustment. If ATF exudes distinctly heard smell of burning, therefore, slipping of internal components of transmission is a cause of infringement. Performance of replacement of ATF and the filter can lead to temporary correction of a situation. At the first opportunity it is necessary to make recovery repair, or replacement of AT.

Diesel engines

Stability of turns of idling is broken

1. Adjustment of TNVD is broken. Check, make necessary adjustments.
2. At a fuel path there are air traffic jams. Check fuel level in the fuel tank, in case of need make gas station. Check fuel lines for existence of leaks, make necessary recovery repair.
3. Passability of the fuel filter, or lines of giving and return of fuel is broken. Check a condition of a fuel path, replace defective components.
4. The car is filled with low-grade diesel fuel. Check, in case of need empty the fuel tank and wash out it and fuel qualitative.

The power developed by the engine fell

1. Passability of the filtering element of air cleaners/lines of an inlet air path is broken. Check a condition of components. In case of need replace the air filter / defective lines.
2. Adjustment of TNVD is broken. Check, make necessary adjustments.
3. Passability of system of production of the fulfilled gases is broken. Check a condition of components of a final path. Eliminate the revealed violations.
4. Passability of the fuel filter is broken. Check, in case of need make replacement.
5. Passability of system of ventilation of a cover of a jellied mouth of the fuel tank is broken. Points the characteristic hissing arising when opening a cover to existence of blocking. In case of need replace a cover.
6. Passability of components of a fuel path is broken. Check, make necessary corrections, replace defective units.
7. Compression pressure fell in cylinders. Make the corresponding check. Make sure of lack of external leaks (for example, through glow plugs and nozzles of injection of fuel). In case of need it is necessary to make recovery repair of the unit.

Diagnostics of the reasons of emergence of the noise arising during the operation of the engine, smells and vibrations

During acceleration or at increase in load of the engine there are knocks caused by too early ignition or a detonation

1. For gas station of the car low-octane gasoline was used. Fill in qualitative fuel in the fuel tank.
2. Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken. Check a condition of the corresponding information sensors and other components of system of ignition/engine management. Replace defective units.
3. It is faulty, or the detonation sensor is too poorly tightened. Violation of effort of tightening of the sensor can lead to delay of ignition and, as a result, decrease in the power developed by the engine. Estimate a sensor condition, check effort of its tightening, in case of need make replacement.
4. Non-standard spark plugs are established. Replace candles, track correctness of installation of interelectrode gaps.

At operation of the car in the high-speed mode it is better to establish "colder" candles.


5. The excessive nagaroobrazovaniye in combustion chambers takes place. Use special additives to fuel, or make dismantling and decarbonization of a head of cylinders.
6. Serviceability of functioning of system of food/engine management is broken. Check a condition of the corresponding information sensors and modules of management. Replace defective components.
7. Passability of a path of system of production of the fulfilled gases is broken. Examine system components on existence of deformations and other mechanical defects. Compare temperature on an entrance and at the exit of the catalytic converter and muffler, - if temperature of the entering stream much more surpasses temperature of the corresponding component leaving, therefore, passability is broken.

During the operation of the engine there is a high-frequency squeal or whistle

1. Belts of the drive of auxiliary units are worn-out, or the effort of their tension weakened. Check, make necessary adjustment, replace worn-out belts.
2. Bearings of natyazhitel of auxiliary belts are worn-out or jammed. Check natyazhitel, in case of need make replacement of components.
3. The water pump is faulty. The pump can not give leaks that does not exclude probability of wear of the bearing or weakening of landing/jamming of rotors. Replace the pump.

During the operation of the engine there is a metal gnash

1. The water pump is faulty, or bolts of its fastening weakened. Check effort of tightening of fixture, replace the faulty pump.
2. Bearings of natyazhitel of auxiliary belts are worn-out or jammed. Check natyazhitel, in case of need make replacement of components.

In operating time of the engine there are different knocks

1. Serviceability of functioning of hydraulic proofreaders of valvate gaps in pushers is broken (on models of the corresponding complete set). Check the level and a condition of motive oil. In case of need replace oil and an oil filter. Check whether there was no collapse of pushers. Replace defective components. Besides serviceability of functioning of hydraulic pushers depends on pressure of motive oil, - check passability of an oil filter, a condition of the oil pump and its reducing valve.
2. On models with manual adjustment of valvate gaps it is necessary to check installation of the last and to estimate degree of wear of the GRM components. In case of need make the corresponding adjustment, replace the failed details.
3. It is worn-out, or incorrectly adjusted a GRM drive belt/chain. Check, execute necessary adjustments, replace defective components of the drive.
4. Cores of inlet or final valves are deformed or are otherwise damaged. Remove a head of cylinders, check a condition of components of valvate assemblies, replace defective parts.

During the operation of the engine there is a strong deaf knock

1. Fastening of a pulley of a bent shaft, or flywheel weakened. Check, replace fixing bolts and tighten them with the required effort.
2. Hydraulic blocking was resulted by deformation of a rod(s). It is necessary to make necessary recovery repair of the power unit.
3. Conrod bearings are excessively worn-out or damaged, - situations of this sort arise most often as a result of decrease in oil pressure. Make the corresponding recovery repair of the engine.

During the operation of the engine in salon and near the car there is a distinct smell of gasoline

1. Check fuel level, - overflow of a tank can lead to insignificant leak of fuel through a mouth. The smell has to disappear already on the first 20 ÷ 25 km of a run as a result of a purge of a coal adsorber.
2. Tightness of landing of a cover of a jellied mouth of the fuel tank is broken. Check, tighten a cover, in case of need make its replacement.
3. Collars of fastening of hoses of lines of giving or return of fuel of a path of a power supply system weakened. Check reliability of fastening of collars, in case of need make the corresponding replacements. Also the probability of failure of sealing epiploons of active components of a power supply system is not excluded. Check, replace defective epiploons.
4. Estimate profitability of fuel consumption. If increase in an expense is connected with refusal of functioning of any components, or with violation of serviceability of ignition of air-fuel mix, there can be a pollution of the catalytic converter. Usually prevents operation of a control lamp about emergence of this sort of situations of the driver "Check the engine". Check a condition of spark plugs, or carry out the analysis of composition of the fulfilled gases. Replace faulty candles and the failed power supply system components.

During the operation of the engine near the car there is a hydrogen sulfide smell (rotten eggs)

1. Giving in combustion chambers of the regrown poor mix is resulted by an overheat of the catalytic converter in which at the same time there is an irreversible chemical reaction to release of hydrogen sulfide. Check serviceability of a condition of sealing laying and vacuum lines of an inlet path, make necessary corrections.
2. As a result of violation of an isparvnost of functioning of the generator or the regulator of tension there is a constant recharge of the rechargeable battery which is followed by electrolyte boiling up. Attentively examine the battery case on existence of cracks, swellings and other damages. In case of need remove the battery and before installation new carefully wash out the surface of the basic pallet baking soda. Check serviceability of functioning of the generator/regulator of tension, make necessary recovery repair or replace the failed components.

During the operation of the engine near the car there is a sweetish smell

1. External leak of cooling liquid takes place. Check a condition of a cover of a radiator, epiploons and sealing laying of components of a cooling path estimate reliability of tightening of hose collars. Tighten fixture, replace the failed components.
2. Leak of cooling liquid through a radiator, a broad tank or the heat exchanger of a heater takes place. Attentively examine a radiator and a broad tank, check whether there are no liquid potek on rugs under the dashboard.
3. Development of internal leaks is resulted by hit of cooling liquid in combustion chambers that usually is followed by release of dense white smoke/couple on an exhaust. Situation of this sort can result from destruction of laying of a head of cylinders, and also emergence of cracks in a body of a block/head of cylinders. Additional symptoms of existence of internal leak of cooling liquid are formation of a whitish raid on an internal surface of a cover of a jellied mouth of motive oil, and also deformation or inflation of radiator hoses.

During the operation of the engine on single turns there are strong vibrations

1. Fastening of support of a suspension bracket of the power unit weakened, or their rubber pillows are worn-out. Check a condition of support, tighten fixture, replace the failed components.
2. Elements of protection of a case are deformed, or their fastening weakened. Check, tighten fixture, restore an initial form of protective plates.

Intensity of vibrations increases during acceleration

1. Rubber suspensions of support of elements of system of production of the fulfilled gases are damaged or lost. Check, replace defective components.
2. Correctness of laying of sections of system of production of the fulfilled gases is broken. Estimate adequacy of laying, track that components of system of release did not adjoin to body elements and elements of a suspension bracket.

Diagnostics of malfunctions of electric equipment of the engine

During the movement there is a battery discharge

1. The battery does not hold a charge. Decrease in level of electrolyte in banks can result from a battery recharge. Check serviceability of functioning of the generator/regulator of tension, make necessary recovery repair, or replace the failed components.
2. Quality of electric contact on terminal connections of wires of the battery is broken. Check a condition of polar plugs of the battery and terminal tips of wires, carefully smooth out contact surfaces, track reliability of landing and fastening of tips on plugs.
3. Serviceability of functioning of the generator/regulator of tension is broken. Check, make necessary recovery repair, or replace the failed components.
4. Fastening of terminal connections of an electrical wiring on the generator weakened, quality of grounding is broken, or contact plugs are excessively oxidized. Check a condition of contact connections, smooth out plugs, replace the failed components.
5. The generator drive belt is worn-out, or the effort of its tension weakened. Check, tighten, or replace a belt, replace defective components of natyazhitel.

The battery is discharged during the night parking of the car


1. The battery is faulty. Replace the battery obviously serviceable.
2. Electric leaks take place. Check serviceability of shutdown of all lighting and alarm fixtures (both external, and internal), in case of need replace the failed sensors switches.
3. Components of diode assembly of the generator failed. Check, replace the defective generator.

Councils for performing diagnostics of the problems connected with decrease in efficiency of return of the engine

First of all it is necessary to estimate the general mechanical condition of the power unit.

Functioning of a control system of supply of fuel on injector models is based on the continuous monitoring of supply of air-fuel mix based on continuous data transmission from information sensors to the module of management. Unlike carburetor models where for pushing through of fuel through the dosing jets for the purpose of providing the required composition of gas mixture the energy developed by a stream of the air stream which is soaked up in the engine on the models equipped with system of injection quality control of mix is used it is exercised by means of management of duration of opening of injectors through which fuel moves in the pipeline / inlet ports of combustion chambers.

Management is made on the basis of the analysis of the data which are continuously arriving from the corresponding information sensors. Sensors trace such parameters as working temperature of cooling liquid, temperature and amount of the air which is soaked up in the engine, turns of a bent shaft, the current provision of a butterfly valve, etc. the control unit continuously analyzes the arriving information and determines duration of opening of injectors of injection demanded at the moment time. Sensors develop low-voltage signals in this connection violation of quality of contact connections of an electrical wiring of the corresponding connecting chains can exert the most direct impact on efficiency of return of the engine (comparable with the impact exerted by an exit of sensors out of operation).

At failure diagnostics, connected with serviceability of functioning of system of injection always first of all check a condition of the corresponding electrical wiring of its contact connections. You watch reliability of fixing of electric sockets, periodically check their physical state. Try not to use the chemical means which are not approved by manufacturers of cars for cleaning of surfaces of components and an electrical wiring of a control system, - after application of such funds for surfaces of the cleared components there can be a film which presence is inadmissible, besides, the risk of damage of isolation of an electrical wiring is high.

The system of electric equipment of the engine provides giving of power supply to all onboard consumers, electronic control units, information sensors and actuation mechanisms. In view of extreme sensitivity of elements of a control system of the engine to differences of tension, violation of serviceability of functioning of the generator/regulator of tension can lead to noticeable decrease in efficiency of return of the power unit. The cars considered in the present manual usually are completed with generators with the built-in regulator of tension. Working parameters of such regulators are not subject to adjustment and in case of violations it is necessary to replace the corresponding element (the regulator or the generator) assembled.

Functioning of system of ignition is also strongly connected with work of system of injection of fuel/engine management and is based on use by the module of management of the data arriving from the corresponding information sensors. On the basis of the analysis of information arriving from sensors the module of management makes timely corrections of a corner of an advancing of ignition, trying to obtain optimum operation of the engine at any turns and the current loadings. On the majority modern systems of this sort manual adjustment of a corner of an advancing of ignition is not represented possible any more. In case of violation of serviceability of functioning of such system the failed element is subject to replacement, - previously make sure that the refusal is not connected with damage of an electrical wiring, or weakening of fastening of its contact sockets. Periodically check a condition of electric sockets, in case of need process them with application of patent cleaners.

Diagnostics of malfunctions of the cooling system

Also mechanical failures of the power unit can act as the causes of some of problems of functioning of the cooling system. So, violation of integrity of sealing laying of a head of cylinders, or formation of porosity of casting of the block, as a rule, inevitably lead to development of leak of cooling liquid.

Functioning of some cooling systems is based on use of electrodriving fans. At failure diagnostics of such systems it is worth to remember to check a condition of the corresponding safety locks and quality of contact connections of chains of management of functioning of fans. You watch a condition of terminal sockets, periodically delete corrosion products from contact surfaces, using only patent specialized cleaners for this purpose.


The engine overheat takes place

1. Level of cooling liquid fell. Include on the maximum productivity a heater of salon for check of a path on existence of air traffic jams. "Pump over" the cooling system and examine its components on existence of signs of leaks. Add necessary amount of cooling liquid of the required grade in system.
2. Poorly developed leaks in a path of the cooling system take place. Make check of a path pressure, - places of leaks can be determined aurally by characteristic hissing. Special attention should be paid to a condition of such components as connecting hoses (with fixing collars), the valve of management of supply of cooling liquid in the heater heat exchanger, actually the heat exchanger (radiator) of a heater, a radiator, radiator hoses and the water pump. Replace defective units, add necessary amount of cooling liquid of the required grade in system.
3. Serviceability of functioning of the electric control unit is broken by functioning of fans of the cooling system (on models of the corresponding complete set). Check a condition of the corresponding safety locks, the relay and sensors of temperature. Replace the failed components.
4. Leak of cooling liquid through laying of a head of cylinders, or as a result of development of porosity in walls of casting of the block or a head of cylinders takes place. Check, replace laying, or defective section of the power unit.
5. Passability of the heat exchanger of a radiator is broken. Wash out, or replace a radiator.
6. The water pump is faulty. At violation of adequacy of circulation of cooling liquid check density of landing of rotors of the water pump, in case of identification of a weak point replace the pump.

Level of cooling liquid in the engine constantly falls

1. Poorly developed leaks in a path of the cooling system take place. Make check of a path pressure, - places of leaks can be determined aurally by characteristic hissing. Special attention should be paid to a condition of such components as connecting hoses (with fixing collars), the valve of management of supply of cooling liquid in the heater heat exchanger, actually the heat exchanger (radiator) of a heater, a radiator, radiator hoses and the water pump. Replace defective units, add necessary amount of cooling liquid of the required grade in system.
2. Leak of cooling liquid through laying of a head of cylinders, or as a result of development of porosity in walls of casting of the block or a head of cylinders takes place. Check, replace laying, or defective section of the power unit.

Overcooling of the engine takes place

1. The thermostat is faulty. Replace the thermostat jammed in open situation.
2. Serviceability of functioning of the electric control unit is broken by functioning of fans of the cooling system (on models of the corresponding complete set). Check a condition of the corresponding safety locks, the relay and sensors of temperature. Replace the failed components.
3. Indications of the measuring instrument of temperature are inexact. Check a condition of sensors of temperature, rectify debugged.

The engine works with an overheat

1. Passability of the heat exchanger of a radiator is broken. Wash out, or replace a radiator.
2. The belt of the drive of the water pump is worn-out, or the effort of its tension weakened. Check, tighten, or replace a belt, replace defective components of natyazhitel.
3. Serviceability of functioning of fans of the cooling system is broken. Check a condition of driving electric motors, the relay and sensors of temperature. Replace defective components.
4. Indications of the measuring instrument of temperature are inexact. Check a condition of sensors of temperature, rectify debugged.
5. Level of cooling liquid fell. Include on the maximum productivity a heater of salon for check of a path on existence of air traffic jams. "Pump over" the cooling system and examine its components on existence of signs of leaks. Add necessary amount of cooling liquid of the required grade in system.

Diagnostics of malfunctions of system of production of the fulfilled gases

It is not necessary to treat increase in level of the vibrations connected with violations in system of production of the fulfilled gases scornfully. Remember that increase in a vibration background leads to premature wear of components of support of a suspension bracket of the power unit, formation of cracks and fatigue deformation of metal components of a frame and a suspension bracket, destruction of welded seams and the core of the catalytic converter.


The characteristic deaf knock during the operation of the engine on single turns takes place

1. Components of support of a suspension bracket of the power unit are worn-out. Examine basic knots, replace the failed components, tighten fixture.
2. Components of suspended support of elements of system of production of the fulfilled gases are faulty. Examine basic knots, replace the failed components, establish new instead of lost.
3. Mechanical damage of the muffler or catalytic converter takes place. It must be kept in mind that the come-off internal elements of these components can communicate a stream of the fulfilled gases down a path, making characteristic sounds rather far from defective knot. Such situations can lead also to violation of passability of a final path that usually is followed by decrease in depth of depression in the inlet pipeline of the engine. Remove the suspected sections of system of release, remove all loose and foreign objects from a path, replace the failed components.
4. Check correctness of laying of working sections of system of release, paying special attention to adequacy of gaps between elements of system and components of a body/suspension bracket.

During the movement there are vibrations of components of system of production of the fulfilled gases

1. Components of suspended support of elements of system of production of the fulfilled gases are faulty. Examine basic knots, replace the failed components, establish new instead of lost.
2. Correctness of laying of working sections of a final path is broken. Estimate adequacy of the gaps formed between elements of system and components of a body/suspension bracket.

Sections of system of production of the fulfilled gases are hung out excessively low under the car bottom

1. Components of suspended support of elements of system of production of the fulfilled gases are faulty. Examine basic knots, replace the failed components, establish new instead of lost.
2. Correctness of laying of working sections of a final path is broken.

Functioning of system of production of the fulfilled gases is followed by an excessive noise background

1. Reliability of fixing of components of a final path is broken, or leak of the fulfilled gases take place. Attentively examine system on all length, rectify debugged, replace defective components.
2. Internal dividing partitions of mufflers of a final path are destroyed. Check a condition of the suspected components, replace defective knots.
3. The failed muffler at unfair or skorospeshny repair was replaced with tubular section. Study technical documentation on system of production of the fulfilled gases, complete all sections of a path with regular components.

Diagnostics of malfunctions of the transmission line

Automatic transmission

On many models control of functioning of AT is exercised in the electronic way. At the same time paramount value gets a condition of an electrical wiring and contact connections of the corresponding chain. Do not forget to examine the corresponding components from time to time, check reliability of fixing of sockets. For rubbing of isolation and removal of products of oxidation from contact plugs of an electrical wiring use only patent cleaners!


Smoothness of switching of AT is broken

1. Level of transmission liquid fell. Check, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.

 Use only ATF of the recommended grade!


2. Check a condition of ATF. In case of identification of signs of pollution replace liquid and the AT filter. Presence at liquid of a smell of burning testifies to the fact of pro-slipping of internal components of transmission. It is more correct to charge performance of check of a state and recovery repair of AT to specialists of car service.
3. The AT filter is incorrectly installed, or its sealing laying is destroyed. Check, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
4. Tightness of sealing laying, or pressure head lines / their nipple connections is broken. Check a condition of components of a hydraulic path of AT, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
5. Fastening of drafts of the drive of switching of AT / a butterfly valve weakened. Check, make necessary corrections, tighten fixture.

Serviceability of switching of AT is broken

1. Fastening / weakened adjustment of drafts of the drive of switching of AT is broken. Check, make necessary corrections / adjustments.
2. Level of transmission liquid fell. Check, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.

Use only ATF of the recommended grade!


3. Damage of internal components of transmission takes place. It is more correct to charge performance of check of a state and recovery repair of AT to specialists of car service.

There is no automatic switching of AT to a low gear when squeezing to an accelerator pedal floor

1. Sensors or control units are faulty (models with electronic control of AT). Check, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
2. Adjustment of drafts of the drive of inclusion the kickdown mode is broken, or the vacuum servo-driver is faulty (models with the mechanical kickdown drive). Check a condition of components of the drive, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
3. On models with electronic control
4. The diaphragm spring "sank" (see the Head Stsepleniye and the transmission line).
5. Leak of hydraulic liquid from the main or executive cylinder of coupling takes place (see the Head Stsepleniye and the transmission line).
6. Air got to the hydraulic highway of the drive of coupling (softness of the course of a pedal) (see the Head Stsepleniye and the transmission line takes place).
7. The sealing cuff of the piston of the main or executive cylinder is damaged (see the Head Stsepleniye and the transmission line).
8. The lack of lubricant of the directing bearing takes place (see the Head Stsepleniye and the transmission line).

Manual box of gear shifting

Gear shifting is followed by a gnash

1. Coupling switching off drive components are worn-out. On models with the mechanical or hummock drive of coupling check adjustment of the corresponding components. Adjust a coupling pedal so that the size of its free wheeling did not exceed 25 mm. On models with the hydraulic drive of coupling check the level of working liquid in the tank of the main cylinder, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.
2. Synchronizers are worn-out. Remove the transmission, replace synchronizers.
3. The sliding couplings of synchronizers are worn-out. Remove the transmission, replace the sliding couplings.
4. Doggies of gearing of gear wheels are worn-out or damaged. Remove the transmission, replace the corresponding gear wheels.

The box "comes off" the chosen transfer

1. The blocking switching rod springs are worn-out. Replace the failed components.
2. The sliding couplings of synchronizers are worn-out. Remove the transmission, replace the sliding couplings.
3. Doggies of gearing of gear wheels are worn-out or damaged. Remove the transmission, replace the corresponding gear wheels.
4. Persistent bearings of a bent shaft are worn-out. Make dismantling of the engine, replace the failed components.

Gear shifting is complicated

1. Coupling adjustment is broken. Check, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.
2. Synchronizers are worn-out. Remove the transmission, replace synchronizers.
3. The directing bearing is jammed. Remove the transmission, replace the bearing.
4. Gear shifting drive drafts/plugs are jammed. Disassemble the switching drive mechanism, replace worn-out and defective components. During assembly do not forget to grease carefully established details.

Leak of gearbox oil takes place

1. In the transmission too much oil is filled in. Check oil level, make necessary adjustment.
2. Passability of sapun, or ventilating branch pipes is broken. Check, eliminate blocking, in case of need add necessary amount of gearbox oil in the transmission.
3. Tightness of sealing laying of a case of RKPP is broken, or in casting of the last a time/crack was formed. Replace defective components. Fill in necessary amount of oil of the required grade in the transmission.

Coupling

The drive of coupling can be carried out by means of drafts, a cable or a hydraulic way. On models with the mechanical or hummock drive the size of a free wheeling of a pedal has to from time to time (in process of wear of the conducted disk) to be corrected. On models with the hydraulic drive adjustment is carried out automatically (except for height of provision of a pedal which is not subject to adjustment).


Coupling revolves at the movement uphill, or during acceleration

1. Adjustment of a free wheeling of a pedal of coupling is broken. Check, by means of draft adjustment / achieve a driving cable that the free wheeling of a pedal made about 25 mm.
2. The conducted clutch plate is worn-out/is damaged. Remove the engine/transmission, replace coupling assembled.
3. Petals of a diaphragm spring of a press clutch plate weakened. Remove the engine/transmission, replace coupling assembled.
4. Quality of machining of working surfaces of a press disk / flywheel is broken. Check, replace defective components.

Completeness of switching off of coupling is broken (gear shifting is complicated)

1. The coupling switching off drive mechanism is faulty. Estimate a condition of elements of the drive (cables/drafts/components of a hydraulic path), replace the failed details. On models with the hydraulic drive of coupling "pump over" a liquid path, having completely removed from it air traffic jams.
2. The coupling switching off lever, or its rotary knot is damaged. Check a condition of the lever, in case of need make replacement.
3. The nave of the conducted clutch plate, or its torsion springs is damaged. Investigate coupling, replace the failed components.
4. The directing coupling bearing is jammed. Investigate coupling, replace defective components.
5. The conducted disk is faulty. Investigate coupling, estimate planeness of the conducted disk, make sure that thickness of frictional slips does not exceed extreme admissible value. Replace the corresponding components.

Squeezing of a pedal of coupling is followed by extraneous noises

1. Adjustment of an emphasis of a pedal, or its free wheeling is broken. Check, make the corresponding adjustments.
2. The release bearing is worn-out or damaged. If intensity of a noise background decreases at a pedal otpuskaniye, the bearing should be replaced.
3. The axial side play of a bent shaft of the engine is excessive. Check a condition of persistent bearings of a bent shaft, replace defective components.

Squeezing of a pedal of coupling requires excessive effort

1. The pedal axis is jammed. Check, remove the causes of blocking, replace defective components, grease axial plugs.
2. It is incorrectly laid, or the coupling drive cable is worn-out (models with the hummock drive). Estimate a condition of a driving cable, in case of identification a peg, attritions, traces of corrosion and other damages, replace a cable, trying not to bend new excessively. Check quality of grounding of the power unit, - at a tire detachment grounding can begin to be carried out on a coupling drive cable that results in its premature wear.
3. On models with the mechanical drive of coupling check correctness of laying of drafts, make sure of lack of signs of jamming. Grease axial and reference points, replace defective components.
4. The lack of lubricant of the directing tube of the release bearing and a fork of switching off of coupling takes place. Check, fill the corresponding components heat-resistant lubricant, getting full liberty the course of the bearing on a tube.
5. On models with the hydraulic drive of coupling check the level of working liquid, examine the surfaces of the main and executive cylinders of coupling on existence of signs of leaks. Replace defective components, "pump over" a hydraulic path. In the absence of signs of leak of liquid it is possible to assume that internal damage of the main hydraulic cylinder of coupling takes place. Replace the cylinder, "pump over" system.

Inclusion of coupling is followed by vibration

1. Planeness of a working surface of a flywheel is broken. Check, in case of need give a flywheel to a pro-point, or replace it.
2. The conducted clutch plate is deformed, or its damping nave is damaged. Remove coupling, replace defective components.
3. The clutch plate is damaged press, or petals of its diaphragm spring weakened. Replace press a disk.

Differential and main transfer

The differential publishes a low-frequency gnash

1. Level of lubricant liquid fell, or in differential oil not of that grade is filled in. Check, in case of need replace oil.
2. Differential bearings are worn-out or damaged. Replace bearings, check a condition of the leader and conducted gear wheels, in case of need replace as well them.

Functioning of differential is followed by the howling sound

1. Level of lubricant liquid fell, or in differential oil not of that grade is filled in. Check, in case of need replace oil.
2. The conducting and/or conducted differential gear wheel is worn-out or damaged. Check, replace defective components.

Transfer case

After a trip traces of leak of lubricant liquid through epiploons or сапун come to light

1. In the transfer case a lot of lubricant liquid is filled in excessively. Check liquid level, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.
2. Passability of a sapun or its hose is broken. Check, remove the cause of blocking of the ventilating channel, in case of need add necessary amount of liquid of the required grade in a case of the transfer case.
3. Epiploons are worn-out or damaged. Replace defective components, check the level of lubricant liquid, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.

Functioning of the transfer case is followed by an intensive noise background

1. In the transfer case lubricant liquid not of that grade is filled in. Empty a box, fill in in it the liquid meeting standards.
2. Level of lubricant liquid fell. Check, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.
3. Damage of internal components of the transfer case takes place. Remove a box, sort it, estimate a condition of internal components, replace defective parts.

Distributing comes off the chosen situation

1. Stop the movement and make sure of completeness of input of a box in gearing.
2. Wear takes place, fastening weakened, or adjustment of driving draft is broken. Check a condition of the drive of the transfer case, make necessary corrections / adjustments / replacements.
3. Has wear or damage of internal components of the transfer case.
4. Remove a box, sort it, estimate a condition of internal components, replace defective parts.

Driveshaft (rear-wheel and all-wheel drive models)

Driveshaft sections usually connect among themselves by means of universal (cardan) hinges, however on some models instead of the last hinges of equal angular speeds, or rubber flexible couplings can be installed.


Switching of transfer from a lobby on back is followed by deaf metal click in the central part of the bottom of the car

The driveshaft crosspiece is worn-out. Remove a shaft, replace defective components.

Dispersal of the car is followed by vibrations in the central part of the car

1. The driveshaft crosspiece is worn-out. Remove a shaft, replace defective components.
2. Correctness of installation of the driveshaft is broken. Check a condition of support of a suspension bracket of the power unit, tighten fixture, replace defective components.
3. Balancing of the driveshaft is broken as a result of deformation or a bend. Check, replace defective components.
4. There was a disbalance of the driveshaft. Remove assembly of a shaft and give it to balancing. Alternatively replace a shaft.

Driving shaft / half shafts

Provorachivaniye of forward/back wheels during the movement is followed by clicks

1. In a pattern of a protector foreign objects got stuck. Check, clean a protector, in case of need take a wheel to repare.
2. Hinges of equal angular speeds are worn-out/are damaged (CV JOINTS), or their fastening on power shafts weakened. Estimate a condition of CV JOINTS, in case of need make replacement.

Dispersal of the car is followed by noticeable vibration of forward/back wheels

1. The rim is deformed. Check, in case of need take the corresponding wheel to repare, or replace a defective disk.
2. Balancing of wheels is broken. Balance wheels.
3. Wheel bearings are worn-out, or the effort of their pretightness weakened. Check, in case of need replace bearings, adjust a pretightness.
4. Hinges of equal angular speeds are worn-out/are damaged (CV JOINTS), or their fastening on power shafts weakened. Estimate a condition of CV JOINTS, in case of need make replacement.

The other problems connected with functioning of the transmission line

At dispersal of the car there is a smell of burning proceeding from under the central part of the bottom

1. Brake mechanisms are jammed. Check, estimate a gap of landing of pistons in cylinders of supports and degree of wear of a working surface of a brake disk (see also Section devoted to diagnostics of malfunctions of the brake system).
2. Coupling revolves (models with RKPP). Check, make the corresponding corrections (see above).
3. The ATF level fell (models with AT). Check, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment. If adjustment of level of liquid does not lead to elimination of a smell, transmission should be removed for carrying out the corresponding recovery repair.

Increase in turns of the engine is not followed by acceleration of the car

1. Coupling revolves (models with RKPP). Check, make the corresponding corrections (see above).
2. The ATF level fell (models with AT). Check, in case of need make the corresponding adjustment. If adjustment of level of liquid does not lead to correction of a situation, transmission should be removed for carrying out the corresponding recovery repair.

Diagnostics of malfunctions of the brake system

Before coming to conclusion about failure of the brake system, check a state and pressure of a rating of tires, uniformity of loading of the car and the angles of installation of forward wheels.


Squeezing of a brake pedal is followed by its pulling or pulsations

1. Nuts of fastening of wheels weakened. Check, evenly tighten wheel nuts with the required effort.
2. It is deformed, or the brake disk is unevenly worn-out. Check, in case of need make a pro-point or replacement of a defective disk.

The pro-point of a disk should not give to decrease in its thickness below an admissible limit!


3. Bolts of fastening of a brake support or its anchor bracket weakened. Check, tighten fixture with the required effort, estimate a condition of the bearing components.
4. The pretightness of wheel bearings weakened. Check, make the corresponding adjustment, in case of need replace bearings.

During braking there is a characteristic high-frequency squeal of brakes

1. From the outer edge of a brake disk(s) furrows were formed. Check, in case of need make a pro-point or replacement of a defective disk.

The pro-point of a disk should not give to decrease in its thickness below an admissible limit!


2. Working surfaces of frictional overlays of brake shoes are polluted. Remove blocks, carefully clear slips.
3. Blocks are excessively worn-out. Check, make replacement.
4. A working surface of frictional overlays of a zapolirovan to gloss. Check, replace blocks/boots complete with brake disks / reels.
5. Elements of fixture of brake blocks / boots are damaged by corrosion. Check, replace defective components, before assembly grease the established details with heat-resistant lubricant.

During braking in the central part of wheels there is a gnash

1. Blocks are excessively worn-out. Check, make replacement.
2. Partially or components of brake mechanisms are completely jammed that results in premature and uneven wear of brake blocks / boots and disks/drums. Check, replace defective components.

During braking course stability of the vehicle is lost (the car takes away to the right or to the left)

1. Air got to the hydraulic highway of the brake system. Attentively examine all components of system on existence of signs of development of leaks. Pump over the corresponding part of the hydraulic highway. Replace brake fluid.
2. Passability of flexible brake hoses is broken. Check, replace defective components, wash out a hydraulic path.
3. Partially or components of brake mechanisms are completely jammed that results in premature and uneven wear of brake blocks / boots and disks/drums. Check, replace defective components.
4. The car front geometry is broken, or suspension bracket components are excessively worn-out. Check, replace defective components, tighten fixture, make adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels.
5. Regulators of drum brake mechanisms are faulty. Check, remove the causes of blocking, replace defective components, adjust brakes.

Softness, or the excessive course of a brake pedal takes place

1. Level fell, or pollution of brake fluid takes place. Check. If the brake path was not washed out within more than two years, clear GTTs tank walls, wash out the brake system, fill in in it fresh liquid and pump over.
2. Flexible brake hoses are damaged. Check, replace defective components.
3. Regulators of drum brake mechanisms are faulty. Check, remove the causes of blocking, replace defective components, adjust brakes.

Efficiency of braking is obviously underestimated, despite the increased resistance of a pedal of a foot brake to squeezing

1. The vacuum amplifier of brakes is faulty. Check, estimate a condition of the control valve of the servo-driver, replace defective components.
2. Zapolirovana to gloss working surfaces of frictional overlays of brake shoes. Check, replace blocks, in case of need eliminate defects of working surfaces of brake disks / reels.
3. Partially or components of brake mechanisms are completely jammed that results in premature and uneven wear of brake blocks / boots and disks/drums. Check, replace defective components.

Uniformity of distribution of brake effort between forward and back wheels of the car is broken

1. The valve regulator is worn-out, damaged or jammed. Make replacement of the valve.
2. It is jammed, beat spring/draft of the drive of the valve regulator is disconnected. Check, replace defective components.

The pedal of a foot brake which is squeezed out to a floor at an otpuskaniye does not come back to a starting position

1. Level of hydraulic liquid fell. Attentively examine components of a brake path on existence of signs of leaks, replace defective parts, add the required amount of liquid in the GTTs tank, pump over the brake system.
2. GTTs is faulty. Replace the cylinder, fill in fresh brake fluid in system, pump over a hydraulic path.

Brake fluid smells of ashes

1. Partially or components of brake mechanisms are completely jammed. Check, replace defective components.
2. Passability of flexible brake hoses is broken. Check, replace defective hoses, wash out a hydraulic path, pump over system.
3. The mechanism of an otpuskaniye of the parking brake is faulty. Check a condition of driving cables and executive levers, replace defective components.

Councils for performing diagnostics of the problems connected by functioning of the brake system

The causes of the pulsations and vibrations appearing during braking usually come to light during trial runs of the car.

If vibrations arise in a brake pedal at its squeezing and are not transferred on steering a wheel, then, most likely uneven wear or deformation of disks/drums of brake mechanisms of back wheels is the reason of their emergence. Return in a wheel testifies to need of check first of all of a condition of brake disks of forward wheels.

Pedal failures when braking can be connected with hit of air to the hydraulic highway of system, or with boiling up of working liquid as a result of "prikhvatyvaniye" of brake mechanisms or an incomplete otpuskaniye of the parking brake. Also the probability of violation of adjustment of drum brake mechanisms of back wheels is not excluded. For check, without starting the engine, several times rock a brake pedal and, holding it squeezed out, cock the parking brake, then release a pedal and at once squeeze out it back. If at repeated squeezing the pedal "fails", therefore back brake mechanisms need adjustment.

It is not necessary to compensate violation of adjustment of drum brake mechanisms by fine tuning of the parking brake as it will result in premature wear of overlays of brake boots.


Diagnostics of malfunctions of wheels, tires, steering drive and suspension bracket

Wheels and wheel bearings

Weakening of fastening of forward wheels / pretightness of wheel bearings

All-wheel drive and front-wheel models

1. Stupichny nuts / nuts of fastening of wheels weakened. Check, tighten fixture.
2. Wheel bearings are worn-out or damaged. Check, in case of need make replacement, adjust a pretightness of bearings.

Rear-wheel models

1. Adjustment of wheel bearings is broken. Execute adjustment of a pretightness if the weak point does not disappear, replace bearings.
2. Nuts of fastening of wheels weakened. Check, tighten fixture.
3. Wheel bearings are worn-out or damaged. Check, in case of need make replacement, adjust a pretightness of bearings.

Weakening of fastening of back wheels / pretightness of wheel bearings

All-wheel drive and rear-wheel models

1. Stupichny nuts / nuts of fastening of wheels weakened. Check, tighten fixture.
2. Wheel bearings are worn-out or damaged. Check, in case of need make replacement, adjust a pretightness of bearings.
Front-wheel models

1. Adjustment of wheel bearings is broken. Execute adjustment of a pretightness if the weak point does not disappear, replace bearings.
2. Nuts of fastening of wheels weakened. Check, tighten fixture.
3. Wheel bearings are worn-out or damaged. Check, in case of need make replacement, adjust a pretightness of bearings.

Tires

Unilateral wear of a protector takes place

1. Adjustment of angles of installation of wheels is broken (convergence). Check, execute necessary adjustment.
2. Tires are pumped incorrectly up. Check, make the corresponding adjustment.
3. Suspension bracket components are worn-out or damaged. Check, replace defective parts, adjust the angles of installation of wheels.

Uneven wear of a protector takes place

1. Tires are pumped incorrectly up, or balancing of wheels is broken. Check, make necessary adjustments.
2. Adjustment of angles of installation of wheels is broken. Check, execute necessary adjustment.
3. Shock-absorbers are faulty. Check a condition of racks of a suspension bracket, replace defective components. Make adjustment of angles of installation of wheels.
4. Adjustment of angles of installation of wheels is broken (convergence). Check, execute necessary adjustment.
5. Suspension bracket components are worn-out or damaged. Check, replace defective parts, adjust the angles of installation of wheels.

Steering drive

The excessive side play of a steering wheel takes place

1. Adjustment of a free wheeling of the steering mechanism is broken. Check, make the corresponding adjustment.
2. Components of the steering drive are worn-out or damaged. Check, replace defective parts, make adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels.
3. The steering mechanism is faulty. Check, make replacement, adjust the angles of installation of forward wheels.

The steering wheel vibrates at the movement at a cruiser speed

1. Disks/tire of forward wheels are deformed. Check, replace defective disks, balance wheels.
2. Uneven wear of tires of forward wheels takes place. Replace tires, track that they were pumped up according to standard requirements.
3. The latent defect of tires of forward wheels takes place. Replace tires, track that they were pumped up according to standard requirements.
4. Balancing of assemblies of forward wheels is broken. Balance wheels. Track that bolts/nut of fastening of wheels were tightened with the required effort.
5. Wheel bearings weakened. Check, adjust a pretightness, in case of need replace the failed bearings.

The steering wheel vibrates during braking

See above the Section devoted to diagnostics of malfunctions of the brake system.

The provorachivaniye of a steering wheel requires excessive effort

1. Adjustment of a free wheeling of a steering wheel is broken. Check, make the corresponding adjustment.
2. The steering mechanism is faulty. Replace assembly of rack transfer, execute adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels.
3. Suspension bracket components are worn-out or damaged. Check, replace defective parts, adjust the angles of installation of forward wheels.

Suspension bracket

Course stability of the car is broken

1. Tires are pumped unevenly up. Check, make the corresponding adjustment.
2. Uneven wear of protectors takes place. Check, replace tires.
3. On a forward axis of the car wheels of a different standard size are established, or the weight balance of tires is broken. Check, make necessary replacements.
4. Adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels is broken. Check, make the corresponding adjustment.
5. Brakes "are taken". Check a condition of brake mechanisms, replace defective components, make adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels.

The car is excessively shaken at the movement on an uneven paving


1. Shock-absorbers or other components of rack-mount assemblies are worn-out or jammed. Check, make necessary corrections / replacements.

Shock-absorbers can be replaced in pairs.


The car excessively heels on turns

1. Shock-absorbers or other components of rack-mount assemblies are worn-out or jammed. Check, make necessary corrections / replacements.

Shock-absorbers can be replaced in pairs.


2. Components of racks/collars of the stabilizer of cross stability are worn-out or damaged. Check, replace defective parts.

The car has excessively rigid course

1. Shock-absorbers are jammed. Check a condition of racks of a suspension bracket, replace defective components.
2. Tires are pumped over. Check, dump excessive pressure.

The car has excessively a nizka landing, or is tilted in one of the parties

1. Are damaged, or screw springs of a suspension bracket sank. Check, in case of need replace springs in pairs.
2. Shock-absorbers are jammed. Check a condition of racks of a suspension bracket, replace defective components.

Extraneous noises and vibrations

The movement of the car is followed by clicks

1. Check whether dependence between intensity of sounds and speed of the movement of the car takes place, whether clicks at the movement by a setup disappear. If the frequency of clicking changes in proportion to the speed of the movement, and does not depend on the provision of a pedal of gas / a steering wheel, check whether the foreign subject, any of tires, got stuck in a pattern of a protector. In case of need give a wheel to mounting.
2. In case of detection of dependence between intensity of sounds and speed movement/position of the throttle gate / a steering wheel check a condition of the CV JOINT, universal hinge / the flexible coupling of the driveshaft.

Knock and clicks at the movement on an uneven paving

1. Suspension bracket components are weakened or damaged. Check (special attention should be paid to a condition of rubber-metal plugs and spherical support), replace defective parts.
2. Bolts of fastening of components of a suspension bracket weakened. Check reliability of tightening of fixture of a stretcher and bolts of axial joints of elements of a suspension bracket. Tighten fixture with the required effort.
3. Wheel bearings weakened. Make adjustment of a pretightness, in case of need replace bearings.
4. Adjustment of door loops is broken. Check density of closing of doors, in case of need make the corresponding adjustments, tighten fixture of loops.

The movement of the car is followed by low-frequency rumble

1. Sounds of this sort usually are a sign of failure of bearings of the transmission line, mainly - wheel. The bearing their overheat caused by "prikhvatyvaniye" of brakes and also damage at blow about curbstone or a sewer well can be a cause of failure. During commission of turns intensity of noise can vary, so, at the left turn load of the bearing of the right wheel and vice versa raises. One more sign of failure of bearings of forward wheels is emergence of vibrations of a steering wheel on turns. The damaged wheel bearings are subject to replacement.
2. Tires are excessively worn-out/are damaged, or balancing of wheels is broken. Internal defect of tires sometimes is followed by the symptoms similar to symptoms of damage of components of a suspension bracket. Establish obviously serviceable set of wheels.

At the movement on an uneven paving there is a characteristic metal scratch

1. Spherical support are worn-out, or loss of lubricant in them as a result of damage of rubber protective covers takes place. Check a condition of spherical support, in case of identification of a weak point make replacement. Do not forget to execute adjustment of angles of installation of wheels.
2. Rubber-metal plugs of support of components of a suspension bracket are destroyed. Check, replace defective components, adjust the angles of installation of wheels.
3. Rubber plugs of support of the stabilizer of cross stability / a jet bar are twisted on a bar. Check a condition of plugs, in case of need make replacement. At installation slightly grease the landing surfaces of plugs.

The movement of the car is followed by vibration

1. Vibrations are caused by roughnesses of a paving.
2. Tires are worn-out/are damaged, or balancing of wheels is broken. Balance wheels. In case of need make replacement.
3. Joints (the CV JOINT, the universal hinge or the flexible coupling) of the driveshaft are damaged. Check, replace defective components.
4. Will bend a power shaft, or its fastening weakened. Check, tighten fixture, in case of need make replacement.

Failure diagnostics of onboard electric equipment

Head headlights

Serviceability of functioning of one or both headlights in the mode of passing or driving beam is broken

1. Quality of contact connection on the socket is broken. Check quality of grounding of a block headlight and serviceability of giving on it of power supply from the battery. If food moves regularly, and grounding as it should be, replace the failed lamp. At violation of giving of food/grounding check a condition of an electrical wiring of the corresponding chain (see schemes of electric connections).
2. The switch of management is faulty. Make replacement.

Brightness of a luminescence of one or both headlights is strongly reduced

1. Quality of contact connection on the socket is broken. Check quality of grounding of a block headlight and serviceability of giving on it of power supply from the battery. If supply voltage on the socket is strongly underestimated, check a condition of elements and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chain.
2. The socle of the corresponding lamp or its boss is strongly oxidized. Carefully smooth out contact surfaces, in case of need replace the failed component.

Running and marker lights

Running and marker lights do not function

1. Quality of contact connection on the socket is broken. Check quality of grounding of the corresponding lighting fixture and serviceability of giving on it of power supply from the battery. If food moves regularly, and grounding as it should be, check a condition of the boss, in case of need replace the failed lamp. At violation of giving of food/grounding check a condition of an electrical wiring of the corresponding chain.
2. The switch of management is faulty. Make replacement.

The alternating refusals of running and marker lights take place

1. Filament of the corresponding lamp is damaged. Check, replace the failed lamp.
2. The socle of the corresponding lamp or its boss is strongly oxidized. Carefully smooth out contact surfaces, in case of need replace the failed component.
3. The electrical wiring or its contact plugs is damaged. Check, make the corresponding corrections.
4. The switch of management is faulty. Make replacement.

Brightness of a luminescence of one of lighting fixtures is strongly reduced

1. Quality of contact connection on the socket is broken. Check quality of grounding of the corresponding lighting fixture and serviceability of giving on it of power supply from the battery. If supply voltage on the socket is strongly underestimated, check a condition of elements and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chain (see schemes of electric connections).
2. The socle of the corresponding lamp or its boss is strongly oxidized. Carefully smooth out contact surfaces, in case of need replace the failed component.
3. The switch of management is faulty. Make replacement.

Internal lighting fixtures

Internal illumination of salon does not function

1. The switch of management is installed in the wrong situation. Find the switch and transfer it to the relevant provision.
2. Quality of contact connection on the lamp socket is broken. Check quality of grounding and serviceability of giving of power supply from the battery. If food is absent, check a condition of the corresponding safety lock, in case of need make replacement. Check a condition of elements and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chain (see schemes of electric connections). In the absence of grounding check a condition of contacts of door sensors switches, remove corrosion traces, in case of need replace defective components.

The alternating refusal of internal illumination of salon takes place

1. Filament of the corresponding lamp is damaged. Check, replace the failed lamp.
2. The socle of the corresponding lamp or its boss is strongly oxidized. Carefully smooth out contact surfaces, in case of need replace the failed component.
3. Contact plugs of the external socket of the lamp are oxidized or damaged. Check, smooth out or replace the corresponding components.
4. Serviceability of functioning of door sensors switches is broken. Check, replace the failed components.

Brightness of illumination of salon is strongly reduced

1. Quality of contact connection on the socket is broken. Check quality of grounding of the lamp and serviceability of giving on it of power supply from the battery. If supply voltage on the socket is strongly underestimated, check a condition of elements and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chain (see schemes of electric connections).
2. The socle of the corresponding lamp or its boss is strongly oxidized. Carefully smooth out contact surfaces, in case of need replace the failed component.
3. One of switches / датчиков-выключателей managements is faulty. Make replacement.

Stoplights

The refusal of one of stoplights takes place

Serviceability of giving of tension to a lamp of the corresponding stoplight is broken. check if food moves regularly, estimate quality of grounding, in case of need replace a lamp. At identification of signs of break of a contour of food or weight check a condition of elements and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chain (see schemes of electric connections).

The refusal of both stoplights takes place

Adjustment of the sensor switch of stoplights is broken. Check, make the corresponding adjustment. If giving of food to stoplights remains broken despite serviceability of functioning of the sensor switch, check a condition of elements and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chain (see schemes of electric connections), make necessary corrections.

Brightness of a luminescence of one or both stoplights is strongly reduced

Quality of contact connection on one of contact sockets of the corresponding chain is broken. Check quality of grounding of lantern assemblies and serviceability of giving on them of power supply from the battery. If supply voltage on the socket is strongly underestimated, check a condition of elements and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chain (see schemes of electric connections). Sometimes there is a need for removal of the defective socket and cleaning of its landing surface.

Control lamps

The control lamp(s) continues to burn after start of the engine

Control lamp of a charge

1. The generator or the regulator of tension is faulty. Check, replace the failed components.
2. Short circuit in a chain of an electrical wiring of the corresponding lamp takes place. Check, make necessary corrections.

Control lamp "Check the engine"

1. Time of carrying out the next maintenance of the engine approached, or adjusting parameters of the last are broken. Carry out THAT, check parameters of settings, estimate a condition of spark plugs and the air filter, check the level and a condition of motive oil. Make necessary adjustments and replacements.
2. The alternating reimpoverishment of air-fuel mix as a result of approach to the end of a reserve of fuel in a tank takes place. Fuel the car, make reinstallation of a lamp.
3. Quality of contact connections in a chain of system of injection/engine management is broken. Check a condition of an electrical wiring and contact sockets of the module of management and information sensors.
4. Losses of depression in the inlet pipeline take place. Check a condition of sealing laying and vacuum hoses. Replace defective components.
5. The raised consumption of engine oil as a result of strong wear of internal components of the engine takes place. Make recovery repair of the power unit.

Control lamp of ABS

1. Contact connections of wheel sensors are oxidized, or between teeths of alarm rotors foreign particles got stuck. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. Leaks in GTTs take place. Examine the cylinder, replace the failed cuffs and laying.
3. Serviceability of functioning of the module of management of ABS, the hydraulic pump or valves regulators is broken. Check a condition of components, make necessary corrections / replace defective parts.
4. Malfunction in an electric chain of wheel sensors / the module of management of ABS takes place. Attentively examine an electrical wiring, eliminate the revealed defects.

Control lamp of the brake system

1. Level of hydraulic liquid fell in the GTTs tank. Check a hydraulic path of the brake system for existence of signs of leaks, rectify debugged, add necessary amount of liquid of the required grade in the tank.
2. Frictional overlays of brake blocks / boots are excessively worn-out. Check, make replacement of the failed components.

Replacement of brake blocks / boots is always made in a set for both wheels of the corresponding axis!

3. Defect in a chain of the alarm sensor of a control lamp takes place. Check, make necessary corrections, replace the failed components.

Control lamp of pressure of oil

Operation of the car with the lowered pressure of oil is fraught with the serious internal damages of the engine connected with expensive repair.


One of signs of inadmissible decrease in oil pressure is increase of a detonation during the operation of the engine.


4. At operation of this control lamp it is necessary to kill immediately the engine and to check the level of engine oil and a condition of an oil filter. In case of need add the corresponding amount of oil from a canister which has to be stored in the car and be updated at each replacement of oil.
5. The electrical wiring of the sensor switch of a control lamp of pressure of oil is damaged. At the included ignition (the engine do not start) disconnect an electrical wiring from the sensor switch, - the control lamp should not burn, otherwise check an electrical wiring for existence of signs of short circuit on weight. Make sure of integrity of isolation on all length of wires, replace defective units of a chain.
6. Passability of the mesh filter of a maslozabornik is broken. Remove the pallet of a case and clean the filter.
7. Serviceability of functioning of the sensor switch of a control lamp of pressure of oil is broken. For check establish obviously
8. Passability of a full-line oil filter is broken, or oil leak takes place. Replace the filter.

Control lamp of raising of the parking brake

1. The lever of the parking brake is not released. Do not forget to release the parking brake before a start of motion.
2. Adjusting position of the sensor switch of a control lamp is broken, or short circuit in a chain of its electrical wiring takes place. Check, rectify debugged.
3. The sensor switch of a control lamp is faulty. Check, make replacement.

The control lamp(s) begins to blink during the movement

Control lamp of a charge

1. The generator or the regulator of tension is faulty. Check, replace the failed components.
2. Short circuit in a chain of an electrical wiring of the corresponding lamp takes place. Check, make necessary corrections.

Control lamp "Check the engine"

1. Time of carrying out the next maintenance of the engine approached, or adjusting parameters of the last are broken. Carry out THAT, check parameters of settings, estimate a condition of spark plugs and the air filter, check the level and a condition of motive oil. Make necessary adjustments and replacements.
2. The alternating reimpoverishment of air-fuel mix as a result of approach to the end of a reserve of fuel in a tank takes place. Fuel the car, make reinstallation of a lamp.
3. Quality of contact connections in a chain of system of injection/engine management is broken. Check a condition of an electrical wiring and contact sockets of the module of management and information sensors.
4. Losses of depression in the inlet pipeline take place. Check a condition of sealing laying and vacuum hoses. Replace defective components.
5. The electrical wiring of a chain of a control lamp is damaged. Check an electrical wiring for existence of short circuits, rectify debugged.

Control lamp of ABS

1. Contact connections of wheel sensors are oxidized, or between teeths of alarm rotors foreign particles got stuck. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. Leaks in GTTs take place. Examine the cylinder, replace the failed cuffs and laying.
3. Serviceability of functioning of the module of management of ABS, the hydraulic pump or valves regulators is broken. Check a condition of components, make necessary corrections / replace defective parts.
4. Malfunction in an electric chain of wheel sensors / the module of management of ABS takes place. Attentively examine an electrical wiring, eliminate the revealed defects.

Control lamp of the brake system

1. Level of hydraulic liquid fell in the GTTs tank. Check a hydraulic path of the brake system for existence of signs of leaks, rectify debugged, add necessary amount of liquid of the required grade in the tank.
2. Frictional overlays of brake blocks / boots are excessively worn-out. Check, make replacement of the failed components.

Replacement of brake blocks / boots is always made in a set for both wheels of the corresponding axis!


3. Defect in a chain of the alarm sensor of a control lamp takes place. Check, make necessary corrections, replace the failed components.

Control lamp of pressure of oil

Operation of the car with the lowered pressure of oil is fraught with the serious internal damages of the engine connected with expensive repair.


One of signs of inadmissible decrease in oil pressure is increase of a detonation during the operation of the engine.


1. At operation of this control lamp it is necessary to kill immediately the engine and to check the level of engine oil and a condition of an oil filter. In case of need add the corresponding amount of oil from a canister which has to be stored in the car and be updated at each replacement of oil.
2. The electrical wiring of the sensor switch of a control lamp of pressure of oil is damaged. At the included ignition (the engine do not start) disconnect an electrical wiring from the sensor switch, - the control lamp should not burn, otherwise check an electrical wiring for existence of signs of short circuit on weight. Make sure of integrity of isolation on all length of wires, replace defective units of a chain.
3. Passability of the mesh filter of a maslozabornik is broken. Remove the pallet of a case and clean the filter.
4. Serviceability of functioning of the sensor switch of a control lamp of pressure of oil is broken. For check install obviously serviceable sensor.

Control lamp of raising of the parking brake

1. The lever of the parking brake is not released. Do not forget to release the parking brake before a start of motion.
2. Adjusting position of the sensor switch of a control lamp is broken, or short circuit in a chain of its electrical wiring takes place. Check, rectify debugged.
3. The sensor switch of a control lamp is faulty. Check, make replacement.

The control lamp(s) does not light up at inclusion of ignition without start of the engine

1. The lamp is faulty, - check by substitution obviously serviceable.
2. The break in цеп takes place. Check a condition of the corresponding electrical wiring.
3. The corresponding sensor switch is faulty, or defect in a chain of its electrical wiring takes place. Check, rectify debugged, replace defective components.

Indexes of turns alarm system

Signal lights join, but work in the continuous mode

The breaker is faulty. Replace the failed block.

The bilateral refusal of signal lights takes place

1. The safety lock fused. Check, make replacement.
2. The breaker failed, - check by substitution of obviously serviceable block.
3. Malfunction in an electrical wiring chain takes place. Check, rectify debugged.

The unilateral refusal of signal lights takes place

1. Lamps fused. Check, replace the failed lamps.
2. Quality of grounding of assemblies of the corresponding fires is broken. Check, eliminate break.

Only one of signal lights does not join

1. The lamp fused. Check, make replacement.
2. Contact surfaces of a socle/cartridge are oxidized. Check, smooth out plugs.
3. Quality of grounding of the boss of the corresponding lamp is broken. Check, eliminate break.

Frequency of gleams of signal lights is strongly reduced

Too powerful lamps are established. Replace lamps.

Frequency of gleams of signal lights is strongly increased

1. Insufficiently powerful lamps are established. Replace lamps.
2. The breaker not of that type is installed. Replace the breaker.

Serviceability of functioning of a control lamp of the alarm system is broken

1. The corresponding external signal lights are faulty. Check, in case of need replace a control lamp.
2. The switch of the alarm system is faulty. Check, in case of need make replacement.

Serviceability of functioning of one of control lamps of indexes of turns is broken

1. The lamp fused. Check, make replacement.
2. The breaker is faulty, - check by substitution of obviously serviceable block, in case of need make replacement.

Horn

The sound signal is absent

1. The corresponding safety lock fused. Check, in case of need make replacement.
2. Serviceability of giving of food on a horn is broken, or the break in a grounding contour takes place. Check. If food moves regularly, replace a horn. In case of identification of refusal check a condition of the corresponding electrical wiring.

The tonality of sound of a horn changed

1. On models with one horn make replacement of the last.
2. On models with a 2-rozhkovy horn check serviceability of functioning of the second horn. Serially disconnecting an electrical wiring from horns, check serviceability of functioning of each of them separately. Replace the failed component.
3. Check correctness of installation of a horn (ов), - horns have to be established by a bell down. Make sure that in a horn foreign objects did not get.

Screen wipers

Screen wipers do not function

1. The safety lock fused. Check, make replacement.
2. The switch of management is faulty. Check, rectify debugged, in case of need replace the switch.
3. Quality of contact connections in a chain of the electric drive of screen wipers is broken. Check, smooth out plugs, replace the failed elements.
4. Quality of grounding of the switch of management or a driving electric motor is broken. Check, eliminate the revealed breaks.

There is an overheat of a driving electric motor, inclusion of screen wipers leads to knocking-out of a safety lock

1. Internal damage of an electric motor takes place. Make replacement.
2. Are jammed, or drafts of the drive of levers of screen wipers are deformed. Check, make necessary corrections, replace the failed components.

Functioning of one or both levers of screen wipers during the correct work of a driving electric motor is broken

1. Fixture of the corresponding driving draft weakened. Check, tighten fixture.
2. Fastening of the lever on a drive axis weakened. Tighten a nut, in case of need make replacement of the corresponding lever / axial knot of the drive.

At shutdown of a brush do not come back to parking situation

1. As a result of malfunction of the switch of management the power off order from a driving electric motor is broken. Check, rectify debugged.
2. Violation in a chain of a parking contour of the driving motor takes place. Replace an electric motor. Before installation of levers start system for the purpose of clarification of the correct parking provision of screen wipers. Having finished installation, include screen wipers in the maximum high-speed mode and make sure that brushes in extreme provisions do not hit against facing of a window opening.

Failure diagnostics of a combination of devices

Speedometer with the hummock drive

Functioning of a speedometer is completely broken

1. The driving cable incorrectly is connected to assembly of the measuring instrument or the leading gear wheel. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. The driving cable is torn off, or there was a rounding off of tips by means of which its fastening in assembly of the measuring instrument/leader of a gear wheel is carried out. Check, in case of need replace a cable.
3. The leading gear wheel of a speedometer is worn-out. Check, in case of need make replacement.
4. The measuring instrument is faulty, - check by substitution of obviously correct assembly. In case of need make replacement.

Fluctuations of an arrow of the measuring instrument at the movement with a constant speed take place


1. Correctness of laying of a cable is broken, excesses or twisting take place. Check, make necessary corrections, in case of identification of signs of damage of a cover replace a cable.
2. Hummock assembly needs lubricant. Remove a cable, examine it on existence of damages (in case of need make replacement), grease and establish into place.

Takes place the alternating violations of functioning of a speedometer

1. Completeness of connection of a cable and reliability of its fixing in clips is broken. Check, make necessary corrections.
2. Are worn-out cable tips (are rounded). Check, in case of need replace hummock assembly.

Speedometer with the electric drive

Functioning of a speedometer is completely broken

1. The inductive descent of the sensor of the speed (VSS) is faulty. Replace the sensor.
2. The electrical wiring on the site of a chain between VSS and a speedometer is damaged. Examine an electrical wiring, estimate quality of contact connections, rectify debugged, replace defective components.
3. The measuring instrument is damaged, - check by substitution of obviously correct assembly. In case of need make replacement.

Takes place the alternating violations of functioning of a speedometer

1. Quality of contact connections on the site of a chain between VSS and a speedometer is broken. Check, make necessary corrections, replace defective components.
2. The inductive descent of the sensor of the speed (VSS) is faulty. Replace the sensor.

Measuring instruments of fuel consumption, temperature of the engine and pressure of oil

Functioning of the measuring instrument is completely broken

1. The corresponding safety lock fused. Check, make replacement.
2. The break in a chain of an electrical wiring of the corresponding measuring instrument takes place. Check, rectify debugged.
3. The corresponding sensor is faulty. Check, make replacement.
4. Adequacy of installation of the measuring instrument or its sensor is broken. Check, make the corresponding corrections.

Stability of indications of the measuring instrument is broken

1. Quality of contact connections of the corresponding electric chain is broken. Check, rectify debugged.
2. The measuring instrument is faulty. Make replacement.

The measuring instrument continuously fixes the maximum indication

1. Short circuit on weight in a chain of an electrical wiring of the corresponding measuring instrument takes place.
2. The measuring instrument is faulty. Make replacement.
3. Serviceability of grounding of the measuring instrument is broken. Check, eliminate break.
4. Adequacy of installation of the measuring instrument or its sensor is broken. Check, make the corresponding corrections.

Diagnostics of malfunctions of systems of heating of air conditioning

Heater

Functioning of the fan of a heater is completely broken

1. The corresponding safety lock fused. Check, make replacement.
2. There was a break of an electrical wiring. Check. Rectify debugged a chain.
3. The break in a chain of the switch of management / resistive assembly of the fan takes place. Check, rectify debugged.
4. The fan drive electric motor is faulty. Check, in case of need make replacement.

Giving in salon of the warmed-up air is broken

1. Liquid level in the engine cooling system is insufficient. Check, make the corresponding adjustment, remove air traffic jams from a path of the cooling system.
2. The engine does not get warm up to the normal working temperature. Check serviceability of functioning of the thermostat. Check, in case of need replace the thermostat.
3. The inlet valve of the heat exchanger (radiator) of a heater is faulty. Check serviceability of functioning тросового / the vacuum drive of the valve. Several times transfer the switch of the choice of temperature condition to extreme provisions, checking serviceability of operation of the valve. Warm up the engine up to the normal working temperature and, having chosen the maximum temperature condition of a heater, probe hoses on an entrance and an exit of valvate assembly. If hoses have different temperature, replace the valve.

At inclusion of a heater there is a fogging of a windshield

1. Weakening of a fixing collar came development of leak of cooling liquid from the hose laid near a partition of a motive compartment or under the car dashboard. Check, rectify debugged.
2. Leak of cooling liquid from the heater heat exchanger takes place. Attentively examine rugs in foot wells of the driver and forward passenger on existence of streams on them.

Cooling liquid has a characteristic sweetish smell. In case of need make the corresponding repair, or replace the failed heat exchanger. On some models for ensuring access to the heat exchanger (radiator) of a heater it is required to remove the dashboard.


Air conditioner

Air does not arrive via air conditioning system deflectors

1. The corresponding safety lock fused. Check, in case of need make replacement.
2. Air conditioning system needs charging.

 Depletion, charging and check of a refrigerator path have to be made in the conditions of a specialized workshop!


3. The sensor switch of pressure of a low pressure path of air conditioning system is faulty. Replace the sensor switch.
4. Resistive assembly of the fan of the conditioner of air is faulty. Check, in case of need replace assembly.
5. Damage of an electrical wiring of a chain of air conditioning system takes place, or the corresponding relay failed. Check, rectify debugged, in case of need replace the relay.

Via deflectors of air conditioning system the warmed-up air arrives

1. Air conditioning system needs charging.

 Depletion, charging and check of a refrigerator path have to be made in the conditions of a specialized workshop!


2. Serviceability of functioning of a clutch coupling of the К/В compressor is broken. Check a condition of the coupling and an electrical wiring of its chain. Rectify debugged, replace defective components.

When using To/in on a floor in salon are formed begin to flow moisture

1. Passability of a drainage tube of the evaporator of air conditioning system is broken. Clean a tube in the place of an exit it from interior of the car.
2. Passability of a drain hose of the evaporator is broken. Clean a hose in the place of an exit it from interior of the car.

Inclusion To/in is followed by emergence in salon of a smell of a mold

Passability of a drain hose of the evaporator of air conditioning system is broken. Clean a hose in the place of an exit it from interior of the car.